Radiation Technologies

There are many ways to deliver and target radiation into the body.  As with other modalities, radiation delivery techniques give the physician more choices as to how best to treat the cancer.  Depending on the type of cancer and stage, one or more methods may be used to maximize tumor reduction and minimize damage to normal healthy tissues. Radiation can be used as part of a multi-disciplinary approach including chemotherapy and / or surgery as well as a stand alone treatment for certain tumors.




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• Cancer Progress (KABC7)
• RapidArc (KTLA5)
• Breast Cancer (WOAI.com)
• Today's Radiation (ABC25)
• RapidArc (Vantage Oncology)
• Calypso (WKRC-TV23)


Radiation & Imaging Resources

Calypso Medical
Elekta
GE Healthcare
Mammosite
Nucletron
SAVI (Cianna Medical)
Siemens
TomoTherapy
Varian Medical Systems
Xoft


3D Conformal Radiation Therapy

3D Conformal Therapy allows us to shape the radiation beam around the tumor and control the dose of radiation throughout the process to limit exposure to normal healthy tissues.  3D Conformal treatment involves the use of CT images (computed tomography) to construct a 3-dimensional, computer-generated recreation of the internal organs and the tumor. This allows the radiation oncologist to target the treatment area while minimizing side effects.


3D Conformal Radiation Therapy - Radiation Treatment

Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI)

Accelerated Partial-breast Irradiation (APBI) is a newer treatment alternative for women with breast cancer. It works by delivering radiation from inside the lumpectomy cavity (the space left after the tumor is removed). It is delivered on an outpatient basis twice a day usually for 5 days.   A small device is placed into the cavity that is connected to a catheter. During radiation therapy, the catheter is connected to a computer-controlled radiation delivery machine. When completed, the machine and catheter are disconnected leaving no radiation between treatments or after the final treatment.


APBI - Mammosite and SAVI Applicators - Radiation Treatment

Calypso® 4D Localization System ("GPS for the Body, Technology®")

The Calypso® 4D Localization System™ provides real-time tracking of the prostate during radiation treatment setup and delivery. It allows the clinician to leverage visual and audio cues to ensure accurate targeting of the treatment area so that adjustments can be made to offset any organ movement. Data is collected via the implanted Beacon® electromagnetic transponders, which relay coordinates to the main display. Clinicians use the motion data to guide radiation therapy with sub-millimeter accuracy.


Calypso 4D Localization System - Radiation Treatment

CT Scanning & Simulation

CT Scanning is used to map the organs and structures within the body.  When a treatment plan is developed, a CT Simulation is necessary to acquire measurements and other technical data.  The patient is positioned on the CT scanner table where multiple scans are performed to generate a digital 3D reconstruction of the body and tumor area.  The information collected during simulation helps the radiation oncologist and other staff prepare and deliver the radiation.


CT Scanner for Simulations - Radiation Treatment

High Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR)

High Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR) utilize radioactive materials that are placed temporarily inside cancerous tumors or areas of the body requiring radiation treatment. These implants can be done with high intensity sources that oscillate the radiation then are removed within minutes. A special machine located in the treatment room delivers the radiation. It can be used to treat prostate, breast, gynecological, lung and some head and neck cancers, but is rarely the only radiation treatment prescribed.


High Dose Rate Brachytherapy - Radiation Treatment
 

Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT)

IGRT is radiation treatment supported by enhanced graphic targeting. By mapping and targeting the treatment area using 2 and 3-D imagery, we can achieve better patient outcomes with fewer side effects.  This is particularly useful when addressing prostate, breast, lung, spine head/neck cancers and other sites in the body.  The clinician can re target the treatment area daily to overcome any movement of internal organs as well as the size and shape of the cancer site.


IGRT 3D Image - Radiation Treatment - Radiation Treatment
 

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)

IMRT involves the use of multiple high-energy x-ray beams to target the tumor. The radiation beams are calculated in advance as part of a patient specific treatment plan to deliver precise radiation while minimizing the dose to the normal surrounding tissues. The strength of the beams can be adjusted as necessary depending on the size, location and stage of the cancer.


IMRT Beams - Radiation Treatment

RapidArc® Radiotherapy

RapidArc is a volumetric arc therapy that delivers a precisely sculpted 3D dose distribution with a single 360-degree gantry rotation. By using an advanced algorithm that simultaneously changes the rotation speed of the gantry, shape of the treatment aperture and the delivery dose rate, treatments are delivered in less than 2 minutes in most cases. Volumetric modulated arc therapy differs from existing techniques like helical IMRT or intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) because it delivers dose to the whole volume, rather than slice by slice.


Varian RapidArc - Radiation Treatment

Respiratory Gating

Treating cancerous tumors, while avoiding exposure to normal healthy tissue, is the goal of radiation therapy. Respiratory Gating is a newer technology that allows the radiation treatment to be synchronized to an individual's breathing pattern, thus targeting the tumor only when it is in the best range for treatment. This is particularly important when treating lung and upper gastrointestinal tumors. By monitoring breathing through the treatment, the radiation oncologist can choose the best moment in a patient's breathing cycle to deliver the treatment.


Respiratory Gating - Radiation Treatment

Seed Implants (Low Dose Rate Brachytherapy)

Seed Implant Brachytherapy involves the use of tiny radioactive isotopes called "seeds" that are permanently placed in the body. This form of treatment controls the dose and reduces exposure to the normal healthy tissues that surround the tumor. The relative amount of radiation is very low and over a period of time, implanted seeds lose their radioactivity and can remain in the body. In the early stages of prostate cancer for example, seed implantation is often used as a stand alone treatment.

 


Seed Implant Brachytherapy - Radiation Treatment

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) is a high-dose treatment for select cancers in the body delivered in one to five sessions.  This technique using focused radiation has such a dramatic reducing effect on the tumor, that the post treatment results are considered to be as effective as surgery.  SBRT is an effective alternative to invasive surgery for many cases, especially for tumors located close to vital structures that have been deemed inoperable.  It offers the flexibility to treat more tumors and allows higher doses to be safely delivered.  SBRT also permits re-treatment of cancer recurrence involving previously irradiated tumor sites.


Stereotactic Body Radiation Treatment

Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS)

Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) is a specialized technique for radiation treatment that is effective for select brain tumors. This technique has such a dramatic reducing effect on the tumor that the post treatment results are considered "surgical". The procedure involves treating the tumor with focused beams of radiation using a high degree of precision in one to five treatments.  It also facilitates maximal protection of normal brain and nerve tissue.  For patients, this treatment is usually completed within one week allowing them to return to normal activity more quickly.


Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) - Radiation Treatment

TomoTherapy®

The TomoTherapy Hi·Art System® combines a very sophisticated form of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and CT image-guided patient positioning into one integrated system.  Photon radiation is produced by a linear accelerator (Linac) inside the machine that is rotates around the patient 360 degrees. The linac moves in association with a device called a multi-leaf collimator, a computer-controlled set of interlaced leaves that dynamically contours the shape of the radiation beam while the patient is slowly advanced via the treatment table through the center of the machine.


TomoTherapy Hi-Art System - Radiation Treatment

Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) is a revolutionary method capable of efficiently delivering a conformal dose distribution to a target area. As  the gantry rotates around the patient, the radiation field is dynamically shaped and modulated in real time to target the tumor bed; treatments may be completed with just one rotation of the gantry, which translates into faster and more precise radiation delivery in less than 2 minutes in most cases. 


VMAT Arc Therapy - Radiation Treatment

3D Ultrasound Imaging

3D Ultrasound Imaging is an advanced, high-precision patient positioning system designed for radiation therapy delivery that is mostly used for prostate cancer patients. The system provides real-time 3D reconstruction of the planned target at time of treatment. The therapist positions the patient on the treatment couch using the treatment room lasers and acquires the patient’s target volume using 3D ultrasound imaging. Based on the obtained images, the therapist adjusts the treatment table so the patient actual treatment coordinates correspond to the treatment planning reference point. The procedure is repeated for each scheduled treatment to ensure that the patient receives the prescribed dose to the intended target.


Z-med SonArray 3D Ultrasound - Radiation Treatment